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Learn about the 5 most common eye diseases

5 Most common eye diseases

The eye is an organ as small as it is complex since it is in charge of sight. It is made up of three layers: the outer one called the sclera, the middle or choroid, and the inner part, which is the retina, which is the nervous or sensory layer. Inside the eye is a gelatinous, transparent substance with a consistency similar to egg white called vitreous, which separates the liquids of the eye from the lens.

This organ is very sensitive and susceptible to getting sick for different reasons, so it is very important to attend to any sign that indicates an eye condition. So that you know the warning signs and symptoms, this time we will tell you about the most common diseases that affect the eyes.

What are eye diseases?

Eye disease is known as conditions that affect sight and that can go unnoticed at first, cause minor discomfort, or trigger serious complications that lead to vision loss.

Many eye diseases are a consequence of systemic conditions that affect the eyes, such as: diabetes, hypertension, thyroid conditions, HIV, diabetic retinopathy, neurological disorders, among others.

Medical assessment is key to the prevention and treatment of diseases that can affect the eyes. And visits to the ophthalmologist can help control them, in order to prevent their progression and serious damage to vision.

Most common eye diseases


Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva, that is, the transparent membrane that covers the eyelid and the sclera. This inflammation is caused by the small blood vessels in the conjunctiva, which become more visible and cause the sclera to turn reddish or pink. The most common cause is a bacterial or viral infection, an open tear duct, and an allergic reaction.

Fortunately, conjunctivitis is an annoying condition but it does not damage vision. However, it is contagious so it is important not to share make-up, clothes, pillows or glasses.

Among the symptoms, in addition to redness, we find: itching, sensation of having sand or a foreign object in the eye, in addition to the secretion of a liquid that forms a crust that prevents opening the eyes in the morning.

Contact lens wearers should stop wearing them as soon as conjunctivitis symptoms begin. If your symptoms don’t start to subside within 12 to 24 hours, make an appointment with your ophthalmologist to make sure you don’t have a more serious eye infection related to contact lens wear.

If left untreated, conjunctivitis can cause inflammation of the cornea, resulting in blurred vision or sensitivity to light.

Dry Eye

Dry eye syndrome is a condition in which the eye does not produce enough tears to keep itself lubricated. This condition can lead to swollen, burning, itchy, and red eyes. Its causes or risk factors can be hormonal, genetic, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and fibromyalgia.

It can also occur due to the use of contact lenses, consumption of antihistamines, antidepressants, or as a result of chemotherapy treatments or after eye surgery.

This condition is very common and can occur in isolation due to environmental factors, such as highly polluted or dry environments, due to the use of air conditioning and heating.

Refractive errors

Refractive errors are the most common cause of vision problems. It is estimated that more than 150 million Americans suffer from one of four types of refractive errors, all of which can be treated with glasses or contact lenses.

These errors are:

  • Myopia: See distant objects blurry.
  • Farsightedness: See nearby objects blurry.
  • Astigmatism: Near and far objects appear blurred or distorted.
  • Presbyopia; Difficulty seeing things up close.


Cataracts are cloudy areas in the lens of the eye. They are very common in older people. In fact, it’s estimated that half of Americans age 80 and older have cataracts or have had surgery to remove them.

Cataracts make vision blurry, diffuse, or less colorful, so the affected person may have trouble reading, driving, and other daily activities.

At first, you may not notice that you have a cataract. But over time, cataracts can make your vision blurry, fuzzy, or less colorful. You might have trouble reading or doing other daily activities.


Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that cause vision loss by damaging the nerve at the back of the eye, the optic nerve. The symptoms usually occur gradually and the patient probably does not notice them until he notices a deficiency in his vision, which usually begins on the side or peripheral.

Find the ophthalmologist you need at NewCity Medical Plaza

If you are looking for treatment for an eye disease, at NewCity Medical Plaza you will find the specialists you need. We have first world facilities, infectious diseases specialists in Tijuana, bilingual staff and a wide variety of certified, specialized doctors with human quality care to provide you with the care you require. Contact us for more information at, call us at (+52) 664 231 78 88 or use our WhatsApp button. We will gladly assist you!

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